Pigs: Profile and Information


A pig is one of the most popular animals. Any of the animals belonging to the genus Sus and within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae are called pigs.

Pig is a term that includes both the common Eurasian wild boar, the domestic pigs, and their ancestor, along with other species.

Pigs, such as all suids, are native to the African and Eurasian continents, starting from Europe to the Pacific islands.

Scientific classification

  • Scientific name: Sus
  • Family: Suidae
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Order: Artiodactyla
  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata

Gestation period

  • Wild boar: 115 days
  • Javan warty pig: 122 days

Juvenile pigs

Juvenile pigs are called piglets. Pigs are highly intelligent and social animals.

With Approximately 1 billion individuals alive at any given time, it is no surprise that the domestic pig is one of the most populous large-sized mammals on the planet. Pigs are omnivores animals and can consume a broad range of food.

In several ways, pigs are biologically like humans; thus, they are frequently used for medical studies related to humans.

Description and behavior

A typical domestic pig has a large head and a long snout that is naturally strengthened with a particular prenasal bone as well as a disk of cartilage at the tip.

The pig’s snout is its most used tool as it is used to dig into the soil in search of food, and the snout is a very acute sense organ.

Each of the pig’s feet has four hoofed toes, with the two central toes being more significant than the others and bearing the most weight.

However, the outer two are not useless as they can be useful on soft ground.

An adult pig has a total of 44 teeth. The teeth on the rear are explicitly adapted for crushing. In the male (called boar), the canine teeth form a pair of tusks, which continues to grow and are sharpened continuously by being rubbed against each other.

Occasionally, mother pigs who are in captivity may savage their own young, mostly if they become very stressed. Some attacks on freshly born piglets can be non-fatal.

Other times, such attacks may lead to the death of the piglets, and in some cases, the mother may eat the piglets.

It is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are a result of the mother attacking or mistakenly crushing the pre-weaned piglet.

Habitat and reproduction

The wild boar (Sus scrofa) can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, they can live in virtually any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs.

If there is increased foraging of wild boars in certain areas, they can cause a nutritional shortage, which can cause the pig population to decrease.

If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most likely rise due to the pigs’ naturally increased reproduction rate.

Environmental impacts

Domestic pigs that have found their way out of captivity in urban areas or were trained free range to forage in the wild, and in a few cases, wild boars which were let out as prey for hunting, have given rise to an increase in populations of the feral pigs in South and North America, Australia, Hawaii, New Zealand, and other areas that are not pigs are not native.

Deliberate or accidental releases of pigs into cities, countries, or environments where they are originally an alien species have caused extensive environmental change.

Their aggressive behavior, omnivorous diet, and their feeding method of digging in the ground all together severely alter ecosystems that are unused to pigs.

Pigs will even feed on small animals and destroy the nests of ground-nesting birds.

10 Facts about Pigs

  1. Pigs are ingenious animals! Their intelligence is higher than that of dogs, some primates, and even some young kids too.
  2. In their natural state, pigs are very clean animals. They keep their toilets and feeding area far from each other for hygiene’s sake.
  3. Pigs are much more tolerant of colder temperatures than hot temperatures. Pigs have no sweat glands, so they can’t sweat. This is why they enjoy being in mud to keep themselves fresh.
  4. When they are well trained, piglets can be quick to learn their names at just about two to three weeks old. They can also learn to respond when their names are called, and they learn tricks faster than dogs.
  5. Pigs can also communicate with each other pigs using grunts. The grunts made by pigs may vary depending on the personality of the pig and can convey essential information about the welfare of their kind.
  6. Pigs have an excellent memory. They can easily remember faces and things for years and can also recognize and remember what some objects are used for.
  7. Newborn piglets as quick to learn to respond to the voices of their mothers’ voices, and mother pigs talk to their babies through grunts while they nurse. Scientific studies have found that piglets have a specific teat order, and individual piglets have their teat to suckle from.
  8. Pigs love to get good massages, enjoy scratching their bodies on trees, spend them relaxing while listening to music, and enjoy playing with several enrichment toys.
  9. The highest density of tactile receptors can be found in the about of the pig. The snouts are mainly used to dig in the dirt and sniff food. A pig has a sense of smell that is about 2000 times more sensitive than that of humans.
  10. A pig can give birth to as many as 18 piglets in a single delivery.
  11. Pigs are incredibly social animals. They have been found to form close bonds with each other and with other animals. In the same way, humans try to keep warm by cuddling; pigs may also cuddle up with each other for the sake of warmth.
  12. The assumption that pigs are dirty animals is wrong as they’ll instead bathe in clean water when in hot weather than rub themselves in the mud.

We hope that you have learned more about pigs and you also found this article useful. Do not hesitate to leave an opinion or additional information in the comments section below.

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